Need help with philosophy 101

31. According to Aristotle, universal forms
A. don't actually exists.
B. are embodied all around us in the particular things of the world of space and time.
C. exist in an independent, transcendent reality.
D. were a fiction created by Plato.
E. None of the above.

32. Marcuse borrows the concept of repression from the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud. Repression refers to
A. a variety of political injustice in which minorities or individuals in disfavor with authorities are made to do things against their will.
B. a way of sublimating pleasure into negative forms of expression.
C. situations in which the ego overrides the id and superego.
D. a kind of catharsis in which emotions experience vicariously can be openly expressed.
E. the forcible pushing out of consciousness the desires, wishes, thoughts, feelings, etc., that the mind considers bad, dangerous, or otherwise unacceptable.

33. Danto's theory of art explains that the is of artistic identification implies that
A. we are able to locate the precise part of element of an object that identifies it as a work of art.
B. an artist can change her or his identity through making art.
C. we make an object into a work of art through regarding it in a certain way (with the aid of theory).
D. society can learn to live either with or without art.
E. artists are able to elevate themselves into "higher culture" by making art.

34. Who felt that art was both desirable and a destructive social force?
A. Plato
B. Aristotle
C. Danto
D. Marcuse
E. None of the above

35. According to Marcuse, art is:
a. irrational.
b. a destructive social force.
c. a valuable element in human life.
D. Both A and B
E. All of the above

36. If a boxer is made angry by some event before a bout, and redirects his anger into the fight, that's an example of:
A. repression.
B. sublimation.
C. transfiguration.
D. catharsis.
E. Both A and C

37. A repressed desire:
A. is pushed entirely out of the mind.
B. remains in the unconscious, but with its emotional force abated.
C. disappears with the passage of time.
D. remains in the unconscious with all of its emotional force.
E. Both B and C

38. The sort of repression that occurs when you force yourself to endure the unpleasantness of an important vaccination (rather than indulging your desire to be elsewhere) is what Marcuse would call:
A. subliminal repression.
B. necessary repression.
C. surplus repression.
D. direct repression.
E. manifest repression.

39. Marcuse tells us that the amount of necessary repression in modern society should be decreased through:
A. sublimation.
B. transfiguration.
C. technological advances.
D. transforming it into surplus repression.
E. None of the above

40. Marcuse notes that:
A. the total amount of repression in modern industrial societies is less than the amount of repression in less advanced societies.
B. as our necessary repression has lessened, our surplus repression has increased.
C. we suffer from much less surplus repression today than we did during the time of our grandparents.
D. technology has, it turns out, failed to decrease our burden of necessary repression.
E. it is impossible to decrease the total burden of repression.

41. The purpose of surplus repression is to:
A. preserve the dominance of the ruling sectors of society.
B. provide an outlet for unconscious desires.
C. restrain us from rising up against the ruling class. allow us to "process" certain experiences at some time after they have actually occurred.
D. Both A and C

42. Marcuse tells us that, in order to encourage people to struggle to free themselves from surplus repression, we must:
A. falsely promise them a release from necessary repression.
B. make them see the difference between the necessary repression they must endure, and the surplus repression from which they can be liberated.
C. first free them from necessary repression.
D. gain the support of the ruling class.
E. None of the above

43. According to Marcuse, the social function of art is to:
A. provide a blueprint for a better future.
B. annoy the ruling class.
C. bring the truth to the repressed masses.
D. keep alive the dream of liberation.
E. illustrate the difference between necessary and surplus repression.

44. Transcendence, in Marcuse's terminology, is:
F. entering a higher, non-material realm.
G. an imaginative leap beyond the repressions of the given social world.
H. an act of artistic revolt, such as calling a blank canvas a painting.
I. the realization that surplus repression is different from necessary repression.
J. the realization that all repression is surplus repression.

45. Who of the following believes that civilization cannot exist without repression?
A. Plato
B. Aristotle
C. Freud
D. Marcuse
E. Both C and D

46. Which of the following serve as examples in Danto’s essay?
A. Fountain
B. One and Three Chairs
C. 4’33”
D. Both A and C
E. All of the above

47. Which artist does not count as an example of the new theory of art Danto proffers?
A. Warhol
B. Lichtenstein
C. Oldenburg
D. Rauschenberg
E. None of the above
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Asked Feb 27, 2013

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